• 宇宙中解决问题的终极办法(来自笛卡尔):
    • Do not acknowledge as true anything that is not obvious, divide a problem into as many parts as necessary to attack it in the best way, and start an analysis by examining the simplest and most easily understood parts before ascending gradually to an understanding of the most complex.

2 Beginner’s Traps

how the prejudices and lax judgment that weaken the novice can be avoided. These problems destroy the self-conadence needed for any investigation to reach a happy conclusion

  • 对过去伟人的作品谦卑是好的,但是,不要过度妄自菲薄。
  • 没有小问题。只有被 well understood 和没有被 well understood 的问题。
  • 有关智商崇拜:与其评价别人是天资平庸还是聪颖,不如看他做的工作是还是。前者是天才容易达到的,但是后者平庸的人似乎更容易达到吼。

3 Intellectual Qualities

In the third chapter I will consider the moral values that should be displayed—which are like stimulants of the will.

  • Independent Judgment:这点真的很难啊,就是 criticle thinking。总是认为需要完全理解了才可以 judge。这是过分谦卑了吗?
  • concentration: 用了个很玄的比喻,用来描述专注的力量。

    If a photographic plate under the center of a lens focused on the heavens is exposed for hours, it comes to reveal stars so far away that even the most powerful telescopes fail to reveal them to the naked eye.

  • passion for reputation: 科学家的名誉不会像作家/音乐家之类的那么快,因为受众少,人又是情感动物。
  • Taste for Scientific Originality

4 What Newcomers to Biological Research Should Know

In the fourth chapter I will suggest what needs to be known in preparing for a competent struggle with nature.

  • 通识教育
  • The Need for Specialization:双刃剑和单刃剑是有用的,到多刃剑就很难劈深了
  • 如何读专著
    • 特别注意方法论和未解决的问题。这是面向一般读者的科普读物中不会涉及的
    • 小心大纲和(别人写的)摘要。大纲对于入门有用,但是作为 investigator,你需要带着目的自己去读。
    • 为什么要做 literature review?为了防止重复造轮子
  • 观察自然
    • 自己观察自然能带给我们激情、惊讶和喜悦。
    • 别人的观察永远带着他们的解读,不管是多简单的事情
    • 这种观察是书本知识无法取代的。
    • Future Interfaces?
  • 如何选择研究课题:选最了解、最热爱的
    • Finally, when we discover ourselves surrounded by a number of equally promising and fertile problems to work on, choose the one whose methodology we understand clearly, and the one we have a decided liking for

5 Diseases of the Will

I will point out certain impairments of the will and of judgment that must be avoided.

  • Contemplator(沉思的人):人们很容易沉迷于入门级的快感,而这对发现新知识无意义。植物学家一开始可能是因为被好看的植物吸引,但是仅仅停留于研究硅藻是不行的。
  • Bibliophiles and Polyglots(藏书者和通晓多语言的人):其中包括

    assiduous reading of everything that is important to know, especially when it interests very few; unconquerable laziness where writing is concerned;

  • Instrument Addicts(实验仪器迷):为什么不说工具迷,是因为他还挺着重讲实验室里的仪器的。他们只是 housekeeper。
  • Misfits:你需要找到合适自己的工作。
  • theorist:理论家,concept 的美放在第一位。